Tinker v. Des Moines

AP US Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What is the significance of Tinker v. Des Moines?

  2. Use Tinker v. Des Moines in a sentence:

  3. Describe a connection to Tinker v. Des Moines in current events:

  4. Find an image related to Tinker v. Des Moines:

Fun Facts

Definition

Tinker v. Des Moines, 393 U.S. 503, was a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court that defined First Amendment rights and cemented students’ rights to free speech in public schools.

Sentence

Tinker v. Des Moines is the reason that you can wear a black arm band to school to protest against freedom of expression.*

Current Events

Federal judge rules for cheerleader kicked off squad over Snapchat F-word post

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AP US Government and Politics

AP US Government and Politics

Video

Audio

Questions

  1. What is the Constitutional basis for the ruling in Tinker v. Des Moines

  2. What was the most significant consequence of the ruling in Tinker?

  3. In what way does the Tinker ruling directly affect you?

  4. Did you know that if the school bell rings while you are wearing an armband it is called a Tinker bell?**

  5. Do you think the ruling in Tinker was a good ruling?

AP Studio Art

Now draw Tinker v. Des Moines Take 10 or 20 seconds. That’s all you need. Nothing fancy. Don’t expect a masterpiece. Draw with symbols or stick figures if you wish. Now Look at your drawing. You’ve got it. That’s all.

Landmark Supreme Court Cases

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*That is true but it was also a joke. If you didn’t get it, don’t worry, just ask your teacher to explain. If they can’t explain, it’s time to panic!

**That one is NOT true but it was actually a joke. If you didn’t get it, don’t worry, and don’t bother your teacher about it. They are busy.

Gideon v. Wainwright

AP US Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What is the significance of Gideon v. Wainwright?

  2. Use Gideon v. Wainwright in a sentence:

  3. Describe a connection to Gideon v. Wainwright in current events:

  4. Find an image related to Gideon v. Wainwright:

Fun Facts

Definition

Gideon v. Wainwright, 372 U.S. 335, is a landmark case in United States Supreme Court history. In a unanimous decision, the Supreme Court established that the Fourteenth Amendment creates a right for criminal defendants who cannot pay for their own lawyers to have the state appoint attorneys on their behalf.

Sentence

Gideon v. Wainwright is the reason that every time you get arrested and charged with a felony you are provided with a lawyer, if you cannot afford one.

Current Events

Poor criminal defendants need better legal counsel to achieve a just society

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AP US Government and Politics

AP US Government and Politics

Video

Audio

Questions

  1. What is the Constitutional basis for the ruling in Gideon v. Wainwright?

  2. What was the most significant consequence of the ruling in Gideon v. Wainwright?

  3. Describe the connection between selective incorporationand Gideon v. Wainwright.

  4. How different would the U.S. be without the Gideon v. Wainwright ruling?

  5. Do you think the ruling in Gideon v. Wainwright was a good ruling?

AP Studio Art

Now draw Gideon v. Wainwright! Take 10 or 20 seconds. That’s all you need. Nothing fancy. Don’t expect a masterpiece. Draw with symbols or stick figures if you wish. Now Look at your drawing. You’ve got it. That’s all.

Landmark Supreme Court Cases

Learn about all 15 Landmark Supreme Court Cases

Eighth Amendment

AP U.S. Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What do you think the Eighth Amendment means?

  2. Use Eighth Amendment in a sentence.

  3. List an example of the Eighth Amendment in current events:

  4. Find (or draw) an image of the Eighth Amendment:

Fast Facts

Definition

Eighth Amendment: The Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution states: “Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.” This amendment prohibits the federal government from imposing unduly harsh penalties on criminal defendants, either as the price for obtaining pretrial release or as punishment for crime after conviction.

Sentence

Because of the Eighth Amendment, the punishment must fit the crime and the federal government is constitutionally prohibited from imposing overly harsh punishments such as torture or forcing anyone to watch Dirty Grandpa (2016).

Example

U.S. Supreme Court Strikes Down Excessive Fines in Property Confiscation Case

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Amendment+8 +No+excessive+bail+or+cruel+punishment..jpg

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 Questions

  1. What makes a punishment “cruel”?

  2. Who decides the meaning of “cruel”?

  3. What punishment was ruled unconstitutional -for four years - based on the Supreme Court’s interpretation of the 8th Amendment in Furman v. Georgia?

  4. Timbs v. Indiana incorporated the Excessive Fines Clause of the VIII Amendment on February 20, 2019. What does “incorporated,” mean?

  5. Explain whether you believe the following image is a result of the VIII Amendment.

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AP Studio Art

Now draw the Eighth Amendment! Take 10 or 20 seconds. That’s all you need. Nothing fancy. Don’t expect a masterpiece. Draw with symbols or stick figures if you wish. Now Look at your drawing. You’ve got it. That’s all.

Selective Incorporation

AP U.S. Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What do you think selective incorporation means?

  2. Use selective incorporation in a sentence.

  3. List an example of selective incorporation in current events:

  4. Find (or draw) an image of selective incorporation :

Fast Facts

Definition

Selective incorporation: While the Bill of Rights expressly protects citizens’ rights and liberties against infringements by the federal government, it does not explicitly mention infringement or regulation of rights by state governments. Over a succession of rulings, the Supreme Court has established the doctrine of selective incorporation to limit state regulation of civil rights and liberties, holding that many protections of the Bill of Rights apply to every level of government, not just the federal.

Sentence

Because the 14th Amendment (1868) guarantees all Americans equal protection under the law, the court ruled that the same rights which the federal government cannot deny us (religion, speech, assembly, etc.) also cannot be denied us by the states.

Example

U.S. Supreme Court Strikes Down Excessive Fines in Property Confiscation Case

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Note: In 2019 The SCOTUS incorporated the Excessive Fines Clause of the VIII Amendment in   Timbs v. Indiana

Note: In 2019 The SCOTUS incorporated the Excessive Fines Clause of the VIII Amendment in Timbs v. Indiana

Video

Selective Incorporation Video from Khan Academy.

 Questions

  1. What is the relationship between the 14th Amendment, the Bill of Rights, and Selective Incorporation?

  2. Explain how selective incorporation limits or increases the power of state governments.

  3. If we repealed the 14th Amendment, would we still have selective incorporation?

  4. Timbs v. Indiana incorporated the Excessive Fines Clause of the VIII Amendment on February 20, 2019. Are there other sections of the Bill of Rights yet to be incorporated?

AP Studio Art

Now draw Selective Incorporation! Take 10 or 20 seconds. That’s all you need. Nothing fancy. Don’t expect a masterpiece. Draw with symbols or stick figures if you wish. Now Look at your drawing. You’ve got it. That’s all.

Bonus Lesson

Here’s our entire lesson on Selective Incorporation!

Baker v. Carr

AP US Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What is the significance of Baker v. Carr?

  2. Use Baker v. Carr in a sentence:

  3. Describe a connection to Baker v. Carr in current events:

  4. Find an image relating to Baker v. Carr:

Fun Facts

 

Definition

Baker v. Carr, 369 U.S. 186, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case from 1962 that established the right of federal courts to review redistricting issues, which had previously been termed "political questions" outside the courts' jurisdiction. The Court’s willingness to address legislative reapportionment in this Tennessee case paved the way for the “one man, one vote” standard of American representative democracy.

Sentence

Baker v. Carr is the reason that each U.S. House congressional district is roughly the same size in population. The average size of a congressional district based on the 2010 Census apportionment population will be 710,767

AP US Government and Politics

AP US Government and Politics

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Audio


Questions

  1. What is the Constitutional basis for the ruling in Baker v. Carr?

  2. What was the most significant consequence of the ruling in Baker v. Carr?

  3. What other landmark cases revolve around the question of redistricting?

  4. How different would the U.S. be without the Baker v. Carr ruling?

  5. Do you think the ruling in Baker v. Carr was a good ruling?

AP Studio Art

Now draw Baker v. Carr! Take 10 or 20 seconds. That’s all you need. Nothing fancy. Don’t expect a masterpiece. Draw with symbols or stick figures if you wish. Now Look at your drawing. You’ve got it. That’s all.

Landmark Supreme Court Cases

Learn about all 15 Landmark Supreme Court Cases

Roe v. Wade

AP US Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What is the significance of Roe v. Wade?

  2. Use Roe v. Wade in a sentence:

  3. Describe a connection to Roe v. Wade in current events:

  4. Find an image relating to Roe v. Wade:

Ten Fast Facts

 

Definition

Roe v. Wade 410 U.S. 113 (1973), is a landmark decision issued in 1973 by the United States Supreme Court on the issue of the constitutionality of laws that criminalized or restricted access to abortions. The Court ruled 7–2 that a right to privacy under the Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment extended to a woman's decision to have an abortion, but that this right must be balanced against the state's interests in regulating abortions: protecting women's health and protecting the potentiality of human life.

Sentence

Roe v. Wade has been one of the most controversial rulings in the history of the U.S. Supreme Court. More than forty years after the decision, It continues to be a major issue in American political elections.

AP US Government and Politics

AP US Government and Politics

Video

Audio


Questions

  1. What is the Constitutional basis for the ruling in Roe v. Wade?

  2. What was the most significant consequence of the ruling in Roe v. Wade?

  3. What cases before Roe served as precedent for the Roe v. Wade ruling?

  4. How different would the U.S. be without the Roe v. Wade ruling?

  5. Do you think Roe v. Wade will be overturned?

AP Studio Art

Now draw Roe v. Wade! Take 10 or 20 seconds. That’s all you need. Nothing fancy. Don’t expect a masterpiece. Draw with symbols or stick figures if you wish. Now Look at your drawing. You’ve got it. That’s all.

Landmark Supreme Court Cases

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Brown v. Board of Education

AP US Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What is the significance of Brown v. Board of Education?

  2. Use Brown v. Board of Education in a sentence:

  3. Describe an connection to Brown v. Board of Education in current events:

  4. Find an image of Brown v. Board of Education:

Ten Fast Facts

 

Definition

Brown v. Board of Education was a 1954 landmark Supreme Court case that overturned the doctrine of separate but equal. In a unanimous ruling the Supreme Court ruled that segrEgation of public schools was unconstitutional, thus beginning the integration of public schools.

Sentence

At the time of the Brown v. Board of Education ruling, 17 southern and border states, along with the District of Columbia, required their public schools to be racially segregated.

AP US Government and Politics

AP US Government and Politics

Video


Questions

  1. What Supreme Court case was overturned by the ruling in Brown v. Board?

  2. What was the most significant consequence of the ruling in Brown v. Board?

  3. In what was has the ruling in Brown v. Board impacted you and your education?

  4. How different would the U.S. be without the Brown ruling?

  5. Describe how integrated your school is today.

AP Studio Art

Now draw Brown v. Board! Take 10 or 20 seconds. That’s all you need. Nothing fancy. Don’t expect a masterpiece. Draw with symbols or stick figures if you wish. Now Look at your drawing. You’ve got it. That’s all.

Landmark Supreme Court Cases

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Clear & Present Danger Test

AP U.S. Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What do you think clear and present danger test means?

  2. Use clear and present danger test in a sentence.

  3. Think of an example of clear and present danger test in current events:

  4. Find an image of clear and present danger test:

Fun Fact

Definition

Clear and Present Danger Test: An interpretation of the First Amendment that holds that the government cannot interfere with speech unless the speech presents a clear and present danger that it will lead to evil or illegal acts. Writing for the Supreme Court in Schenck v United States, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes asked whether "the words create a clear and present danger that they will bring about substantive evils Congress has a right to prevent?" 

Sentence

In handing down his ruling on freedom of speech, Justice Holmes wrote that yelling "fire!" in a crowded movie theater would create a clear and present danger.

Example

Why journalists should care about two indicted anti-abortion activists

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AP U.S. Government and Politics

Stupid Han Solo Movie by the Same Name

 

Questions

  1. What Supreme Court case did the Clear and Present Danger Test come from?

  2. Can you think of a current clear and present danger analogy to yelling fire in a crowded movie theater?

  3. Do you think that speech that causes a clear and present danger should be allowed?

Commercial Speech

AP US Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What do you think commercial speech means?

  2. Use commercial speech in a sentence that might just be the best darned speech in the history of the world.

  3. Think of an example of commercial speech in current events:

  4. Find an image of commercial speech.

Fun Fact

Definition

Commercial speech: Advertisements and commercials for products and services; they receive less First Amendment protection, primarily to discourage false and misleading ads. The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that “political speech”—speech that deals with issues of public interest or social concern—is entitled to full protection under the 1st Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. It may be limited by government only rarely and under very limited circumstances.  “Commercial speech,” however, is given much less protection.  It may be regulated by the government in cases where “political speech” would be protected.

Sentence

The phrase "commercial speech" came from a U.S. Supreme Court decision in 1942 when the owner of a World War I-vintage submarine sued the City of New York over a statute that forbade him to pass out flyers advertising tours of his boat.  The high court labeled the flyers “purely commercial,” even though they had an editorial on one side complaining about city policies.  The term “commercial speech” refers to speech—printed, broadcast or on the Internet—that advertises a product or service.

Example

Strip Club Stiletto Digs In Heels Over BYOB Ad Ban

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AP US Government and Politics

Gopopro.com

 

Questions

  1. How does commercial speech differ from political speech?

  2. If commercial speech was given the same protection as political speech could you outlaw false advertising?

  3. Do you think that commercial speech should be protected like political speech?

  4. What is the stupidest commercial speech (dumbest ad) you ever heard?

  5. Should Burger King commercials really be allowed to exist?

Exclusionary Rule

AP US Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What do you think exclusionary rule means?

  2. Use exclusionary rule in a sentence without using a single curse word.

  3. Think of an example of exclusionary rule in current events:

  4. Find an image of exclusionary rule:

Fun Fact

Definition

Exclusionary Rule: The exclusionary rule prevents the government from using most evidence gathered in violation of the United States Constitution.  The exclusionary rule applies to evidence gained from an unreasonable search or seizure in violation of the Fourth Amendment, as ruled in Mapp v. Ohio (1961), and to improperly elicited self-incriminatory statements gathered in violation of the Fifth Amendment, as ruled in Miranda v. Arizona (1966). Here's the Oyez page on Mapp v. Ohio.

Sentence

If a police officer searched your house, found a kilo of cocaine underneath your pet Gila monster, but did not have a warrant to search your house, because of the exclusionary rule, this illegally obtained evidence could not be used against you in a court preceding.

Example

Federal Court Tells ATF It Can't Just Help Itself To Cell Phone Data Seized By Another Law Enforcement Agency

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AP US Government and Politics

AP US Government and Politics

Questions

  1. When was the Exclusionary Rule established?

  2. What are some exceptions to the Exclusionary Rule?

  3. Do you think the US would be better off without the Exclusionary Rule?

White Primary

AP US Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What do you think white primary means?

  2. Use white primary in a sentence.

  3. Think of an example of white primary in current events:

  4. Find an image of white primary:

Sad Fact

Definition

White primary: A Democratic party primary in the old "one-party South" that was limited to white people and essentially constituted an election, ruled unconstitutional in Smith v. Allwright (1944). Here's the PBS website on Jim Crow and white primaries.

Sentence

After Reconstruction, since the vast majority of southern voters were Democrats Republicans could never beat democrats in a general election. Blacks were allowed to vote in general elections, which didn't actually decide anything, but not in the primary, the only vote that actually mattered.

Example

Voting Rights Roundup: New study confirms just how racially discriminatory voter ID laws truly are

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AP US Government and Politics

Questions

  1. How did White Primaries guarantee White electoral victories?

  2. Why were Republican candidates unable to win in the "solid-South" during the Jim Crow era?

  3. Today, white primaries are illegal, are there any other methods that current politicians legally use to disenfranchise minority voters?

Amicus Curiae Brief

Prediction

  1. What do you think amicus curiae brief means? Pro-tip, it's not a kind of underwear.

  2. Use amicus curiae brief in a sentence.

  3. Think of an example of amicus curiae brief in current events:

  4. Find an image of amicus curiae brief:

 
 

Definition

Amicus Curiae Brief Literally, a "friend of the court" brief, filed by an individual or organization to present arguments in addition to those presented by the immediate parties to a case.  Frequently, a person or group who is not a party to a lawsuit, but has a strong interest in the matter, will petition the court for permission to submit a brief in the action with the intent of influencing the court's decision.

Sentence

Although it was not directly involved in the case, Exxon filed an amicus brief on behalf of the state of Michigan in support of affirmative action.

Example

Yahoo Joins List of Tech Firms Challenging Travel Ban

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How the heck do you say it???

 

Question(s)

  1. Now that you know how to say it, what does amicus curiae mean?

  2. Why would someone file an amicus curiae brief?

  3. How much do you think amicus briefs, or friend of the court briefs actually affect judgement in a case?

Fighting Words

Prediction

  1. What do you think fighting words means?

  2. Use fighting words in a sentence.

  3. Think of an example of fighting words in current events:

  4. Find an image of fighting words:

Fun Fact

Definition

Fighting words: Words that by their very nature inflict injury on those to whom they are addressed or incite them to acts of violence. In 1942, the U.S. Supreme Court established the doctrine by a 9–0 decision in Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire. It held that "insulting or 'fighting words,' those that by their very utterance inflict injury or tend to incite an immediate breach of the peace" are among the "well-defined and narrowly limited classes of speech the prevention and punishment of [which] … have never been thought to raise any constitutional problem." Fighting words are considered to be face-to-face, person-to-person words or symbols.

Sentence

When Prince Philip told the clerk at the Gucci flagship store that, "your mama wears and will continue to wear combat boots," his speech was not protected by the First Amendment.

Example

Why Hate Speech Is Protected Under The Law

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Question(s)

  1. What is one example of fighting words?

  2. How are fighting words different from other protected 1st Amendment speech?

  3. If you were a member of SCOTUS for the day and you ruled upon fighting words. Would you rule that fighting words were protected speech andallow them?

  4. What is the difference between hate speech and fighting words?

  5. Milo Yiannopolous was recently banned from giving a CPAC speech because of horrible things he said. Do you think people should be banned from saying things even if they are offensive?

Eminent Domain

Prediction

  1. What do you think eminent domain means?

  2. Use eminent domain in a sentence.

  3. Think of an example of eminent domain in current events:

  4. Find an image of eminent domain:

Fun Fact

Definition

The power of the government to take private property for public use; the U.S. Constitution gives national and state governments this power and requires them to provide just compensation for property so taken.

Sentence

Although the nation can exercised eminent domain and take a person's farmland to build an interstate highway, they still have to pay her fair value for her land.

Example

Should NC’s constitution limit eminent domain? House votes to back amendment

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Question(s)

  1. What are some reasons the government might use eminent domain to take property?

  2. What Amendment of the Constitution allows eminent domain?

  3. Do you think eminent domain is a good governmental power ? If you were to rewrite the U.S. Constitution would you repeal eminent domain?

Double Jeopardy

Prediction

  1. What do you think double jeopardy means?

  2. Use double jeopardy in a sentence. Please avoid any television show jokes even if they are really funny.

  3. Think of an example of double jeopardy in current events:

  4. Find an image of double jeopardy:

Fun Fact

Definition

Trial or punishment for the same crime by the same government; forbidden by the Constitution.

Sentence

If you are tried by the US government for a crime, acquitted, and then tried by the US government again on the same charge, that is a violation of your 5th Amendment Double Jeopardy protection.

Example

Unionized Ontario Employers Face Double Jeopardy In Human Rights Cases

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Question(s)

  1. If you are tried on a charge by the state can the federal government try you on the same charge?

  2. Whatamendment of the Constitution provides double jeopardy protection?

  3. Some people think that the accused have too many rights. If you were to rewrite the U.S. Constitution would you repeal the Double Jeopardy protection?

Commerce Clause

Prediction

  1. What do you think Commerce Clause means?

  2. Use Commerce Clause in a sentence:

  3. Think of an example of Commerce Clause in current events:

  4. Find an image of political Commerce Clause:

 

Fun Fact

Definition

The clause in the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 1) that gives Congress the power to regulate all business activities that cross state lines or affect more than one state or other nation. Here's a list of landmark Supreme Court cases dealing with the Commerce Clause.

Sentence

During the Civil Rights movement the United States Congress used the power of the Commerce Clause to pass laws such as the Civil Rights Act that fought discrimination.

Example

How Donald Trump Could Pressure the Supreme Court

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Question(s)

  1. What does the Commerce Clause give the federal government power to do?

  2. What are some things the federal government has used the Commerce Clause to regulate?

  3. If you were a member of the Supreme Court (you aren't) would you allow Congress to use the Commerce Clause to regulate discrimination, as it did in the 1960s?

  4. What does the Commerce Clause have to do with federalism?

Plea Bargain

Prediction

  1. What do you think plea bargain means?

  2. Use plea bargain in a sentence :

  3. Think of an example of plea bargain in current events:

  4. Find an image of plea bargain:

 

Fun Fact

Definition

An agreement between a prosecutor and a defendant that the defendant will please guilty to a lesser offense to avoid having to stand trial for a more serious offense. 97 percent of federal cases and 94 percent of state cases end in plea bargains, with defendants pleading guilty in exchange for a lesser sentence.

Sentence

The AP Calculus teacher plead guilty to manslaughter in the death of kindness and understanding to avoid going to trial on a first degree murder charge that could have landed him in prison fro 20 years to life.

Example

Stronger Hand for Judges in the ‘Bazaar’ of Plea Deals

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Question(s)

  1. Imagine you are innocent of a crime of which you have been accused. Also imagine that you don't have much money to fight the charges against you. The prosecutor offers you a plea bargain whereby you plead guilty to a lesser crime which will put you in prison for three years, or you can go to trial and face the possibility of 20 years in prison. What do you do?

  2. Why do prosecutors make plea bargains so much of the time?

  3. What would be a consequence of a law outlawing plea bargains?

Civil Disobedience

Prediction

  1. What do you think civil disobedience means?

  2. Use civil disobedience in a sentence:

  3. Think of an example of civil disobedience in current events:

  4. Find an image of civil disobedience:

 
 

Definition

Deliberate refusal to obey a law or comply with the orders of public officials as a means of expressing opposition in order to influence legislation or government policy, characterized by the employment of such nonviolent techniques as boycotting, picketing, and nonpayment of taxes.

Sentence

For the U.S., the practice of civil disobedience was fundamental in the country’s founding revolution.

Example

Executive Orders And The Call For Civil Disobedience

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Question(s)

  1. List two forms of civil disobedience:

  2. Do you think that civil disobedience is justified when a government is unjust or unresponsive to the will of the people?

  3. Have you ever participated or known anyone who participated in civil disobedience?

  4. What famous Americans practiced civil disobedience?

Mass Movement

Prediction

  1. What do you think mass movement means?

  2. Use mass movement in a sentence:

  3. Think of an example of mass movement in current events:

  4. Find an image of mass movement.

 

 

Definition

A large body of people interested in a common issue, idea, or concern that is of continuing significance and who are willing to take actin. Movements seek to change attitudes or institutions, not just politics. Here's a list of some major US mass movements of the 20th century. Also known as social movements, or movements.

Sentence

If enough people are willing to participate in a mass movement, they can affect the course of American history.

Example

March nemesis: Donald Trump may unwittingly be a revitalising force for American feminism

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Question(s)

  1. What are some of the methods mass movements use to achieve their goals?

  2. What is one mass movement from the past that has made a huge impact on the US?

  3. Do you believe that the people who marched against Donald Trump will form into a durable mass movement?

  4. Taking away what one letter from this vocab term would be kind of funny even though it is very immature?

Jim Crow Laws

Prediction

  1. What do you think Jim Crow Laws means?

  2. Use Jim Crow Laws in a sentence:

  3. Think of an example of Jim Crow Laws in current events:


Definition

State laws formerly pervasive throughout the South requiring public facilities and accommodations such as restaurants, swimming polls, restrooms, movie theaters, schools, water fountains, parks, and trains to be segregated by race. A method of control and subjugation of African Americans used after the end of slavery, eventually ruled unconstitutional, and now replaced by mass incarceration. Here is a list of official areas of segregation by state.

Sentence

“Jim Crow” was a derisive slang term for a black man. It came to mean any state law passed in the South that established different rules for blacks and whites. Jim Crow laws were based on the theory of white supremacy and were a reaction to Reconstruction. In the depression-racked 1890s, racism appealed to whites who feared losing their jobs to blacks. Politicians abused blacks to win the votes of poor white “crackers.”

Example

Legal Scholar: Jim Crow Still Exists In America


Question(s)

  1. Why did Jim Crow laws spread across the south?

  2. What led to the eventual outlawing of Jim Crow laws outlawed?

  3. Which part of Jim Crow do you think would have been the most unjust?