Federalist No. 70

AP US Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What do you think Federalist No. 70 is about?

  2. Use Federalist No. 70 in a sentence that wouldn’t bring tears to your GoPo teacher’s eyes. For example, don’t write: Federalist No. 70 was right after Federalist No. 69.

  3. Think of an example of the ideas from Federalist No. 70 in current events:

  4. Find an image that is not too naughty of Federalist No. 70:

Fun Fact (this fun fact is a fun quiz!!!!)

Definition

Federalist No. 70: The Federalist Papers were a series of eighty-five essays urging the citizens of New York to ratify the new United States Constitution. Written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, the essays originally appeared anonymously in New York newspapers in 1787 and 1788 under the pen name "Publius."

Federalist No. 70, written by Alexander Hamilton addresses the necessity of a strong executive to lead the government.

The present United States Constitution replaced the Articles of Confederation on March 4, 1789.

Sentence

Federalist No. 70 argued that under the Articles of Confederation our government had no strong executive and that the Constitution remedied that by creating a strong Presidency in Article II of the Constitution.

Example

House Democrats declare Trump obstructed justice

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Video

Questions

  1. Why did the author(s) (Publius) write the federalist papers?

  2. What was the main point Publius made in Federalist No. 70?

  3. If The Federalist Papers aren’t a part of the Constitution, why do federal judges often quote them in their rulings?

  4. If the Federalist papers had NOT been written and the Constitution had not been ratified, how different would our country be today?

  5. Imagine that we did not have a strong executive branch. Describe how that would impact American politics.

AP Studio Art

Now draw Federalist No. 70! Take 10 or 20 seconds. That’s all you need. Nothing fancy. Don’t expect a masterpiece. Draw with symbols or stick figures if you wish. Now Look at your drawing. You’ve got it. That’s all.

Eighth Amendment

AP U.S. Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What do you think the Eighth Amendment means?

  2. Use Eighth Amendment in a sentence.

  3. List an example of the Eighth Amendment in current events:

  4. Find (or draw) an image of the Eighth Amendment:

Fast Facts

Definition

Eighth Amendment: The Eighth Amendment to the United States Constitution states: “Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.” This amendment prohibits the federal government from imposing unduly harsh penalties on criminal defendants, either as the price for obtaining pretrial release or as punishment for crime after conviction.

Sentence

Because of the Eighth Amendment, the punishment must fit the crime and the federal government is constitutionally prohibited from imposing overly harsh punishments such as torture or forcing anyone to watch Dirty Grandpa (2016).

Example

U.S. Supreme Court Strikes Down Excessive Fines in Property Confiscation Case

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 Questions

  1. What makes a punishment “cruel”?

  2. Who decides the meaning of “cruel”?

  3. What punishment was ruled unconstitutional -for four years - based on the Supreme Court’s interpretation of the 8th Amendment in Furman v. Georgia?

  4. Timbs v. Indiana incorporated the Excessive Fines Clause of the VIII Amendment on February 20, 2019. What does “incorporated,” mean?

  5. Explain whether you believe the following image is a result of the VIII Amendment.

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AP Studio Art

Now draw the Eighth Amendment! Take 10 or 20 seconds. That’s all you need. Nothing fancy. Don’t expect a masterpiece. Draw with symbols or stick figures if you wish. Now Look at your drawing. You’ve got it. That’s all.

Selective Incorporation

AP U.S. Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What do you think selective incorporation means?

  2. Use selective incorporation in a sentence.

  3. List an example of selective incorporation in current events:

  4. Find (or draw) an image of selective incorporation :

Fast Facts

Definition

Selective incorporation: While the Bill of Rights expressly protects citizens’ rights and liberties against infringements by the federal government, it does not explicitly mention infringement or regulation of rights by state governments. Over a succession of rulings, the Supreme Court has established the doctrine of selective incorporation to limit state regulation of civil rights and liberties, holding that many protections of the Bill of Rights apply to every level of government, not just the federal.

Sentence

Because the 14th Amendment (1868) guarantees all Americans equal protection under the law, the court ruled that the same rights which the federal government cannot deny us (religion, speech, assembly, etc.) also cannot be denied us by the states.

Example

U.S. Supreme Court Strikes Down Excessive Fines in Property Confiscation Case

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Note: In 2019 The SCOTUS incorporated the Excessive Fines Clause of the VIII Amendment in   Timbs v. Indiana

Note: In 2019 The SCOTUS incorporated the Excessive Fines Clause of the VIII Amendment in Timbs v. Indiana

Video

Selective Incorporation Video from Khan Academy.

 Questions

  1. What is the relationship between the 14th Amendment, the Bill of Rights, and Selective Incorporation?

  2. Explain how selective incorporation limits or increases the power of state governments.

  3. If we repealed the 14th Amendment, would we still have selective incorporation?

  4. Timbs v. Indiana incorporated the Excessive Fines Clause of the VIII Amendment on February 20, 2019. Are there other sections of the Bill of Rights yet to be incorporated?

AP Studio Art

Now draw Selective Incorporation! Take 10 or 20 seconds. That’s all you need. Nothing fancy. Don’t expect a masterpiece. Draw with symbols or stick figures if you wish. Now Look at your drawing. You’ve got it. That’s all.

Bonus Lesson

Here’s our entire lesson on Selective Incorporation!

Expressed Powers

Prediction

  1. What do you think expressed powers means?

  2. Use expressed powers in a sentence:

  3. Think of an example of expressed powers in current events:

  4. Find an image of expressed powers:

Fun Fact

Definition

Article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitution lists the expressed powers of the federal government. Powers explicitly named in the Constitution and granted to the federal government.

Sentence

In Article I, Section 8, the Constitution lists the expressed powers. They're sometimes called delegated powers, sometimes called the enumerated powers. They all mean the same things: powers that are actually put down on paper.

Example

In voting against Trump’s emergency declaration, Congress can regain its power

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Questions

  1. What is the difference between expressed powers and implied powers?

  2. What would happen to the power of the federal government if we deleted Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution?

  3. What allows Congress and the President to do things which are not expressly named in the Constitution?

Video

Expressed Powers Video at Khan Academy.

Virginia Plan

Prediction

  1. What do you think Virginia Plan means?

  2. Use Virginia Plan in a GoPo type of sentence: Please do not write, "Virginia made a plan." That would make me mad. Especially if you posted it to the comments section below.

  3. This is going to be very hard, but describe an example of some connection to theVirginia Plan in current events:

  4. Find an image of Virginia Plan:

Fast Fact

Definition

Virginia Plan: At the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787, there was a great debate over how representatives to the new government would be selected: the same number per state, or a certain number per state based upon the state’s population. The Virginia Plan (also known as the Large-State Plan by silly people) was a proposal at the Constitutional Convention by delegates from Virginia. Drafted by James Madison, and presented by Edmund Randolph to the Constitutional Convention on May 29, 1787, the Virginia Plan proposed a strong central government composed of three branches: legislative (bicameral), executive, and judicial.

Sentence

The Virginia Plan was an attempt by the large states to guarantee that large states like Virginia had political power equal to their large population.

Example

There really is no example of the Virginia Plan in current events...So enjoy...It's a Trap! If you can find one and post a link to it on the comments section below, I will be very impressed!

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Questions

  1. What was the main reason the Virginia Plan was proposed?

  2. What part of our current political system is a direct consequence of the Virginia Plan?

  3. Have you ever been to Virginia? Why didn’t you stop?

  4. Imagine that the Virginia Plan never existed, there had not been any Connecticut Compromise, and the New Jersey Plan had been the way we elected all of our representatives. How would that have changed America?

  5. If you had to start the country over and choose between a New Jersey Plan style government by the states, or a Virginia Plan style government by the people, which would you choose and why?

AP Studio Art

Now draw The Virginia Plan! Take 10 or 20 seconds. That’s all you need. Nothing fancy. Don’t expect a masterpiece. Draw with symbols or stick figures if you wish. Now Look at your drawing. You’ve got it. That’s all.

The United States Constitution

AP US Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What do you think The U.S. Constitution is about?

  2. Use The U.S. Constitution in a sentence that might help get you a date to the prom.

  3. Think of an example of the The U.S. Constitution in current events:

  4. Find an image of The U.S. Constitution :

Fun Fact

Definition

The U.S. Constitution: The Constitution of the United States established America's national government and fundamental laws, and guaranteed certain basic rights for its citizens. It was signed on September 17, 1787, by delegates to the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. The present United States Constitution replaced the Articles of Confederation on March 4, 1789.

Sentence

The United States Constitution is an amazing document.  A bold experiment in democracy more than 200 years ago, it has proved both stable and flexible enough to survive and remain effective in a world totally different from the one in which it was written.

Example

Constitution's 'excessive fines' ban bolstered by U.S. high court

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Questions

  1. What set the rules of our government before the Constitution?

  2. Why did the Framers write the Constitution?

  3. Why do you think the Constitution has been able to survive for so long?

  4. What is your favorite legislative, executive, or judicial power in the Constitution?

AP Studio Art

Now draw The U.S. Constitution! Take 10 or 20 seconds. That’s all you need. Nothing fancy. Don’t expect a masterpiece. Draw with symbols or stick figures if you wish. Now Look at your drawing. You’ve got it. That’s all.

U.S. v. Lopez

AP US Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What is the significance of U.S. v. Lopez?

  2. Use U.S. v. Lopez in a sentence:

  3. Describe a connection to U.S. v. Lopez in current events:

  4. Find an image of U.S. v. Lopez:

Ten Fast Facts

 

Definition

U.S. v Lopez was a 1995 landmark Supreme Court case that limited the use of the Commerce Clause. The (5-4) verdict ruled that the Gun-Free School Zones Act of 1990 was unconstitutional because the U.S. Congress, in enacting the legislation, had exceeded its authority under the commerce clause.

Sentence

When the Gun-Free School Zone Act was passed in 1990, there were few limits on the Congress’s use of the Commerce Clause as the constitutional basis for regulation.

AP US Government and Politics

AP US Government and Politics

Video

Audio


Questions

  1. List some other significant Supreme Court cases that deal with the powers of the Commerce Clause.

  2. What was the most significant consequence of the ruling in U.S. v. Lopez?

  3. In what was has the ruling in U.S. v. Lopez impacted your and your education?

  4. How different would the U.S. be without the U.S. v. Lopez ruling?

AP Studio Art

Now draw U.S. v. Lopez! Take 10 or 20 seconds. That’s all you need. Nothing fancy. Don’t expect a masterpiece. Draw with symbols or stick figures if you wish. Now Look at your drawing. You’ve got it. That’s all.

Landmark Supreme Court Cases

Learn about all 15 Landmark Supreme Court Cases

Federalist No. 51

AP US Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What do you think Federalist No. 51 is about?

  2. Use Federalist No. 51 in a sentence that wouldn’t get you kicked out of a McDonald’s.

  3. Think of an example of the ideas from Federalist No. 51 in current events:

  4. Find an image of Federalist No. 51 :

Fun Fact

Definition

Federalist No. 51: The Federalist Papers were a series of eighty-five essays urging the citizens of New York to ratify the new United States Constitution. Written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay, the essays originally appeared anonymously in New York newspapers in 1787 and 1788 under the pen name "Publius."

Federalist No. 51 addresses means by which appropriate checks and balances can be created in government and also advocates a separation of powers within the national government. This idea of checks and balances became a crucial document in the establishment of the modern U.S. system of checks and balances.

The present United States Constitution replaced the Articles of Confederation on March 4, 1789.

Sentence

Federalist No. 51 laid out arguments as to why we need checks and balances with the famous quotes, "Ambition must be made to counteract ambition," and “If men were angels, no government would be necessary.

Example

Congress Is Not a Coequal Branch of Government — It’s Supreme

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Questions

  1. Why did the author(s) (Publius) write the federalist papers?

  2. What was the main point Publius made in Federalist No. 51?

  3. If The Federalist Papers aren’t a part of the Constitution, why do federal judges often quote them in their rulings?

  4. If the Federalist papers had NOT been written and the Constitution had not been ratified, how different would our country be today?

AP Studio Art

Now draw Federalist No. 51! Take 10 or 20 seconds. That’s all you need. Nothing fancy. Don’t expect a masterpiece. Draw with symbols or stick figures if you wish. Now Look at your drawing. You’ve got it. That’s all.

Articles of Confederation

AP US Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What do you think Articles of Confederation means?

  2. Use Articles of Confederation in a sentence that you wouldn't be embarrassed for the FBI to investigate.

  3. Think of an example of Articles of Confederation in current events:

  4. Find an image of Articles of Confederation:

Fun Fact

Definition

Articles of Confederation: The Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation, the first constitution of the United States, on November 15, 1777. However, ratification of the Articles of Confederation by all thirteen states did not occur until March 1, 1781. The Articles created a loose confederation of sovereign states and a weak central government, leaving most of the power with the state governments. The need for a stronger Federal government soon became apparent and eventually led to the Constitutional Convention in 1787. The present United States Constitution replaced the Articles of Confederation on March 4, 1789.

Sentence

The Articles of Confederation were great as long as America didn't actually have to do anything.

Example

Republicans and the Constitution

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Questions

  1. How united were the states under the Articles of Confederation?

  2. What were two flaws in the Articles of Confederation?

  3. Why don't we still have the Articles of Confederation as the US Constitution?

  4. Would we be better off if the USA were bound less tightly, the states had most of the power, and the federal government had little power?

Extradition

AP U.S. Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What do you think extradition means?

  2. Use extradition in a sentence.

  3. Think of an example of extradition in current events:

  4. Find an image of extradition:

Fun Fact

Definition

Extradition: A legal process whereby an alleged criminal offender is surrendered by the officials of one state to officials of the state in which the crime is alleged to have been committed.

Sentence

While imprisoned in Mexico, El Chapo Guzmán was indicted in San Diego on drug-trafficking and money-laundering charges. Apparently fearing extradition, he bribed guards to help him escape in 2001 by hiding in a laundry cart that was rolled out of the prison.

Example

Death on a Prison Bus: Extradition Companies’ Safety Improvements Lag

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AP U.S. Government and Politics

AP U.S. Government and Politics

Questions

  1. What does extradition have to do with federalism?

  2. If you get extradited twice is that an extraextradition?

  3. What is one US agency that is involved in extradition?

  4. What would happen if extradition was not legal?

Preemption

AP US Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What do you think preemption means? What do you think preemption doesn't actually mean, but sounds like it could mean and that if you used the word that way, most people would think you were correct?

  2. Use preemption in a sentence that won't send you to timeout.

  3. Find an example of preemption in current events:

  4. Find an image of preemption (good luck with that!):

Fun Fact

Definition

Preemption: The right of a federal law or regulation to preclude enforcement of a state or local law or regulation. Under the doctrine of preemption, which is based on the Supremacy Clause of the US Constitution, federal law preempts state law, even when the laws conflict. Thus, a federal court may require a state to stop certain behavior it believes interferes with, or is in conflict with, federal law.

Alternative-Definition

Preemption: When you see a boy talking to your shorty at her locker and you yell out, "Hey, there's a fax in the office for a big loser from his Mama!" And while he runs off to the office to get his fax you go and talk to your shorty and BOOM!

Sentence

The new federal EPA regulations are going to preempt California's more strenuous guidelines for regulating the environment.

Example

Thwarting Cities in the Trump Era

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AP US Government and Politics

AP US Government and Politics

Questions

  1. What does federalism have to do with preemption?

  2. Did you realize that the alternative definition was completely not real?

  3. When was a recent incident of preemption?

  4. What part of the Constitution allows preemption?

Federalism

AP US Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What do you think federalism means?

  2. Use federalism in a sentence: ("Federalism is a word," doesn't count!)

  3. Think of an example of federalism in current events:

  4. Find an image of federalism:

 

 

Definition

The distribution of power in an organization (as a government) between a central authority and the constituent units (states, provinces). Here's a world map of federalism.

Sentence

Unlike America's federal government where power is shared between states and the national government, China's unitary government controls most every aspect of Chinese life from education, to taxation, to the capturing and return of underwater drones.

Example

This is Your Federalism on Drugs

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AP US Government and Politics

AP US Government and Politics


Question(s)

  1. Why did the Framers of the Constitution choose a federal system for the US?

  2. Why do so many countries of large size (Brazil, Australia, Canada, US) use federal systems of government?

  3. Imagine the U.S. reverted from a federal system to one where the national government contained all political power. What would be the best and the worst consequences of this change?

National Supremacy

AP US Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What do you think national supremacy means?

  2. Use national supremacy in a sentence:

  3. Describe an example of national supremacy in current events:

  4. Find an image of national supremacy:

Fun Fact

 

Definition

National Supremacy: A constitutional doctrine (Article VI, Clause 2) that whenever conflict occurs between the constitutionally authorized actions of the national government and those of a state or local government, the actions of the federal government prevail.

Sentence

Because of national supremacy, the federal Clean Water Act overrules Colorado's water quality statute.

Example

State Can’t Log in National Forest Without Federal OK

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AP US Government and Politics

AP US Government and Politics


Questions

  1. The National Supremacy Clause is contained in the U.S. Constitution. Which significant Supreme Court Cases revolve around the issue of national supremacy?

  2. How does national supremacy relate to federalism?

  3. What is an example of an instance of national supremacy in the U.S.?

  4. Describe an issue where you'd prefer that your state could override the national government?

  5. How much national supremacy was there under the articles of confederation?

Full Faith and Credit Clause

AP US Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What do you think Full Faith and Credit Clause means?

  2. Use Full Faith and Credit Clause in a sentence that you wouldn't be embarrassed for your mother to read.

  3. Think of an example of Full Faith and Credit Clause in current events:

  4. Find an image of Full Faith and Credit Clause:

 
 

Definition

Full Faith and Credit Clause: Article IV, Section 1 of the United States Constitution, known as the "Full Faith and Credit Clause", addresses the duties that states within the United States have to respect the "public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state." For example, because of the Full Faith and Credit Clause New Hampshire must recognize a motor vehicle license from Virginia, even though everybody knows Virginians can't drive! This term is NEVER abbreviated to FF and CC because that would be silly and sounds like the initials of a really boring couple. This is also not the name of Santa's off-season accounting firm.

Survey
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Virginians Are Good Drivers

Sentence

If it weren't for the Full Faith and Credit Clause, you'd have to get a married again each time you and your spouse moved to a new state. That could be very expensive and time consuming, but you'd get tons of cool wedding presents!

Example

Court: Colorado grandparents can have visitation with Orange County grandkids

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Question

  1. What does the Full Faith and Credit Clause require all states to do?

  2. What would the US be like without the Full Faith and Credit Clause?

  3. Rank the following clauses in order of importance to the USA: Commerce, National Supremacy, Full Faith and Credit, & Necessary and Proper:

Judicial Review

Prediction

  1. What do you think Judicial Review means?

  2. Use Judicial Review in a sentence:

  3. Describe an example of Judicial Review in current events:

  4. Find an image of judicial review:

Fun Fact

Definition

The power of a court to refuse to enforce a law or a government regulation that in the opinion of the judges conflicts with the U.S. Constitution, or in a state court, the state constitution. Here is the entire court opinion in the case of Marbury v Madison which established the principal of judicial review in the U.S.

Sentence

Without judicial review the U.S. Congress and President would be greatly empowered and the Supreme Court would be vastly diminished.

Example

Federal Circuit Panel Urges Court to Revisit Reviewability of § 315(b) En Banc

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Questions

  1. When was judicial review first established in the U.S.?

  2. What would U.S. checks and balances be like without judicial review?

  3. What would happen to presidential power without judicial review?

  4. If the Rockettes put on black robes and performed a show would it be called Judicial Review?

  5. Does your family have it's own kind of judicial review for family matters?

Popular Sovereignty

Prediction

  1. What do you think popular sovereignty means?

  2. Use popular sovereignty in a sentence.

  3. Think of an example of popular sovereignty in current events:

  4. Find an image of popular sovereignty:

Fun Fact

Definition

Popular Sovereignty: A belief that ultimate power resides in the people (rule by the people). Without popular sovereignty there is no democracy. In the Federalist Papers, James Madison referred to the people as the "fountain of authority," the root of all governmental power.

Sentence

Where there is a dictator or unelected ruler there is a lack of popular sovereignty, but there is probably no shortage of statues of the leader. Despots tend to like to put up lots of statues of themselves.

Example

What is a Populist?

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Question(s)

  1. How would you know if you were in a country that lacked popular sovereignty?

  2. What is one way a people can maintain sovereignty over their government?

  3. If Donald Trump could do you think he would get rid of popular sovereignty and be president for life?

Eminent Domain

Prediction

  1. What do you think eminent domain means?

  2. Use eminent domain in a sentence.

  3. Think of an example of eminent domain in current events:

  4. Find an image of eminent domain:

Fun Fact

Definition

The power of the government to take private property for public use; the U.S. Constitution gives national and state governments this power and requires them to provide just compensation for property so taken.

Sentence

Although the nation can exercised eminent domain and take a person's farmland to build an interstate highway, they still have to pay her fair value for her land.

Example

Should NC’s constitution limit eminent domain? House votes to back amendment

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Question(s)

  1. What are some reasons the government might use eminent domain to take property?

  2. What Amendment of the Constitution allows eminent domain?

  3. Do you think eminent domain is a good governmental power ? If you were to rewrite the U.S. Constitution would you repeal eminent domain?

Double Jeopardy

Prediction

  1. What do you think double jeopardy means?

  2. Use double jeopardy in a sentence. Please avoid any television show jokes even if they are really funny.

  3. Think of an example of double jeopardy in current events:

  4. Find an image of double jeopardy:

Fun Fact

Definition

Trial or punishment for the same crime by the same government; forbidden by the Constitution.

Sentence

If you are tried by the US government for a crime, acquitted, and then tried by the US government again on the same charge, that is a violation of your 5th Amendment Double Jeopardy protection.

Example

Unionized Ontario Employers Face Double Jeopardy In Human Rights Cases

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Question(s)

  1. If you are tried on a charge by the state can the federal government try you on the same charge?

  2. Whatamendment of the Constitution provides double jeopardy protection?

  3. Some people think that the accused have too many rights. If you were to rewrite the U.S. Constitution would you repeal the Double Jeopardy protection?

Concurrent Powers

Prediction

  1. What do you think concurrent powers means?

  2. Use concurrent powers in a sentence:

  3. Think of an example of concurrent powers in current events:

  4. Find an image of political concurrent powers:

 

Fun Fact

Definition

Concurrent powers are powers that the Constitution grants to both state and federal governments. These powers may be exercised simultaneously within the same territory and in relation to the same body of citizens. These concurrent powers including regulating elections, taxing, borrowing money and establishing courts.

Sentence

Coining money is not a concurrent power because in the United States only the national government has the power to coin money, not the states.

Example

Judiciary Chairman: State Laws Legalizing Marijuana Are Unconstitutional

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Question(s)

  1. What is the connection between federalism and concurrent powers?

  2. What do you think is the most important concurrent power?

  3. If you were creating a country and you could make it have concurrent powers or not, what would you do?

  4. How would the US change if we did not have concurrent powers?

Commerce Clause

Prediction

  1. What do you think Commerce Clause means?

  2. Use Commerce Clause in a sentence:

  3. Think of an example of Commerce Clause in current events:

  4. Find an image of political Commerce Clause:

 

Fun Fact

Definition

The clause in the Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 1) that gives Congress the power to regulate all business activities that cross state lines or affect more than one state or other nation. Here's a list of landmark Supreme Court cases dealing with the Commerce Clause.

Sentence

During the Civil Rights movement the United States Congress used the power of the Commerce Clause to pass laws such as the Civil Rights Act that fought discrimination.

Example

How Donald Trump Could Pressure the Supreme Court

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Question(s)

  1. What does the Commerce Clause give the federal government power to do?

  2. What are some things the federal government has used the Commerce Clause to regulate?

  3. If you were a member of the Supreme Court (you aren't) would you allow Congress to use the Commerce Clause to regulate discrimination, as it did in the 1960s?

  4. What does the Commerce Clause have to do with federalism?