Commercial Speech

AP US Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What do you think commercial speech means?

  2. Use commercial speech in a sentence that might just be the best darned speech in the history of the world.

  3. Think of an example of commercial speech in current events:

  4. Find an image of commercial speech.

Fun Fact

Definition

Commercial speech: Advertisements and commercials for products and services; they receive less First Amendment protection, primarily to discourage false and misleading ads. The U.S. Supreme Court has ruled that “political speech”—speech that deals with issues of public interest or social concern—is entitled to full protection under the 1st Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. It may be limited by government only rarely and under very limited circumstances.  “Commercial speech,” however, is given much less protection.  It may be regulated by the government in cases where “political speech” would be protected.

Sentence

The phrase "commercial speech" came from a U.S. Supreme Court decision in 1942 when the owner of a World War I-vintage submarine sued the City of New York over a statute that forbade him to pass out flyers advertising tours of his boat.  The high court labeled the flyers “purely commercial,” even though they had an editorial on one side complaining about city policies.  The term “commercial speech” refers to speech—printed, broadcast or on the Internet—that advertises a product or service.

Example

Strip Club Stiletto Digs In Heels Over BYOB Ad Ban

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AP US Government and Politics

Gopopro.com

 

Questions

  1. How does commercial speech differ from political speech?

  2. If commercial speech was given the same protection as political speech could you outlaw false advertising?

  3. Do you think that commercial speech should be protected like political speech?

  4. What is the stupidest commercial speech (dumbest ad) you ever heard?

  5. Should Burger King commercials really be allowed to exist?

Federal Register

AP US Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What do you think federal register means?

  2. Use federal register in a sentence:

  3. Describe an example of federal register in current events:

  4. Find an image of federal register:

 

Fun Fact

 

Definition

Federal Register: An official document, published every weekday that lists the new and proposed regulations of executive departments and regulatory agencies.

Sentence

If you formed a watchdog organization to monitor the growth of the federal government, the first thing you'd want to do every morning is get a big hot cup of coffee and read the federal register. But be careful not to tell anyone the plot and spoil the ending.

Example

Hemp growers may try to block federal ban on marijuana extracts

 

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Fake Federal Register

AP US Government and Politics

AP US Government and Politics


Questions

  1. The Federal Register was created on July 26, 1935. Why do you think the government started the Federal Register and why do you think it happened then?

  2. President Obama added 81,640 pages to the Federal Register. Explain whether that is a good or a bad thing?

  3. What is an example of something that would go in the federal register?

  4. If someone said they were going to register the wedding gifts they wanted on the federal register would you try to stop them?

National Supremacy

AP US Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What do you think national supremacy means?

  2. Use national supremacy in a sentence:

  3. Describe an example of national supremacy in current events:

  4. Find an image of national supremacy:

Fun Fact

 

Definition

National Supremacy: A constitutional doctrine (Article VI, Clause 2) that whenever conflict occurs between the constitutionally authorized actions of the national government and those of a state or local government, the actions of the federal government prevail.

Sentence

Because of national supremacy, the federal Clean Water Act overrules Colorado's water quality statute.

Example

State Can’t Log in National Forest Without Federal OK

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AP US Government and Politics

AP US Government and Politics


Questions

  1. The National Supremacy Clause is contained in the U.S. Constitution. Which significant Supreme Court Cases revolve around the issue of national supremacy?

  2. How does national supremacy relate to federalism?

  3. What is an example of an instance of national supremacy in the U.S.?

  4. Describe an issue where you'd prefer that your state could override the national government?

  5. How much national supremacy was there under the articles of confederation?

Full Faith and Credit Clause

AP US Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What do you think Full Faith and Credit Clause means?

  2. Use Full Faith and Credit Clause in a sentence that you wouldn't be embarrassed for your mother to read.

  3. Think of an example of Full Faith and Credit Clause in current events:

  4. Find an image of Full Faith and Credit Clause:

 
 

Definition

Full Faith and Credit Clause: Article IV, Section 1 of the United States Constitution, known as the "Full Faith and Credit Clause", addresses the duties that states within the United States have to respect the "public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state." For example, because of the Full Faith and Credit Clause New Hampshire must recognize a motor vehicle license from Virginia, even though everybody knows Virginians can't drive! This term is NEVER abbreviated to FF and CC because that would be silly and sounds like the initials of a really boring couple. This is also not the name of Santa's off-season accounting firm.

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Virginians Are Good Drivers

Sentence

If it weren't for the Full Faith and Credit Clause, you'd have to get a married again each time you and your spouse moved to a new state. That could be very expensive and time consuming, but you'd get tons of cool wedding presents!

Example

Court: Colorado grandparents can have visitation with Orange County grandkids

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Question

  1. What does the Full Faith and Credit Clause require all states to do?

  2. What would the US be like without the Full Faith and Credit Clause?

  3. Rank the following clauses in order of importance to the USA: Commerce, National Supremacy, Full Faith and Credit, & Necessary and Proper:

Political Socialization

AP US Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What do you think political socialization means?

  2. Use political socialization in a sentence:

  3. Describe an example of political socialization in current events:

  4. Find an image of political socialization.

Fun Fact

Definition

The process-most notably in families and schools - by which we develop our political attitudes, values, and beliefs.

Sentence

Although he thought he could beat political socialization and be his own man, free from the influence of his family, on election day when he learned that his mother, father, grandmother, and grandfather, had, like him, voted for Trump, he realized the power of political socialization and the futility of fighting against its vast power! 

Example

American Politics in the 21st Century: To be or not to be a Democracy

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AP US Government and Politics


Questions

  1. What would you say are three of your top political values and beliefs?

  2. Where do you think you learned your political beliefs and values?

  3. How many people do you know who vote for a party that is absolutely different from both of their parents?

  4. Would you marry someone who, despite being extraordinarily hot and perfect for you in every other way, had a totally opposite opinion from you regarding Donald Trump?

  5. Why do you think families have such a strong influence on people's political beliefs?

Closed Primary

AP US Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What do you think Closed Primary means?

  2. Use Closed Primary in a sentence that you wouldn't be embarrassed for your Aunt Bertha to read.

  3. Think of an example of Closed Primary in current events:

  4. Find an image of Closed Primary:

Fun Fact

Definition

Closed Primary: In a closed primary, only voters registered with a given party can vote in that party's primary. States with closed primaries include party affiliation in voter registration so that the state has an official record of what party each voter is registered as.

Closed primaries preserve a party's freedom of association by better ensuring that only bona fide members of the party influence who that party nominates, but critics claim that closed primaries can exacerbate the radicalization that often occurs at the primary stage, when candidates must cater to their party's "base" rather than the political center.

In a few states, independent voters may register with a party on Election Day. However, they must remain registered with that party until they change their affiliation again. A handful of states even allow voters registered with one party to switch their registration at the polls to vote in another party's primary.

Sentence

The great state of North Carolina (North Cackalacky), has closed primaries. Therefore, if you are a registered Democrat you may not vote in the North Carolina's Republican closed primary.

Example

California Revisits Presidential Primary Process After 2016 Voter Nightmare

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AP US Government and Politics

Questions

  1. What is the main difference between an open and a closed primary?

  2. What state holds the nation's first primary every presidential election cycle?

  3. If a primary is closed how can you ever get there on time?????

  4. What kind of primary does your state have?

  5. if you were deciding for your state, would you chose an open, closed, or semi-closed primary?

  6. What would happen if we simply stopped having primary elections at all?

  7. If you are the second state to hold a primary is it called the secondary primary?

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Closed Primaries are the best kind of primaries.

Gerrymander

AP US Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What do you think gerrymander means?

  2. Use gerrymander in a sentence:

  3. Think of an example of gerrymander in current events:

  4. Find an image of gerrymander.

Fun Fact

Definition

The dividing of a state, county, etc., into election districts so as to give one political party a majority in many districts while concentrating the voting strength of the other party into as few districts as possible.

 

Sentence

That district was so gerrymandered that if you drove through it with your car doors open you would kill all the people in the district!

Example

The Great Southern Gerrymander Continues in 2016

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AP US Government and Politics

AP US Government and Politics


Questions

  1. Is gerrymandering legal? Should gerrymandering be legal?

  2. Do you live in a gerrymandered district? Explain your answer:

  3. Imagine the Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) ruled gerrymandering unconstitutional. What would be the best and the worst consequences of this change?

  4. Gerrymandering was so named because Elbridge Gerry's district looked like a salamander.                  

Create a name from a US House Representative and an animal that their district looks like (See the most gerrymandered districts in America below):

Party Caucus

AP US Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What do you think party caucus means?

  2. Use party caucus in a sentence.

  3. Think of an example of party caucus in current events:

  4. Find an image of party caucus:

Fun Fact

Definition

Party Caucus: A meeting of members of a party in a legislative chamber to select party leaders and develop party policy. Called a conference by the Republicans. Participants set legislative agendas, select committee members and chairs, and hold elections to choose various Floor leaders. This process takes place for both the Senate and the House of Representatives. Here is a list of Democratic Senate Caucus leadership, and Republican Senate Caucus leadership.

Sentence

The Democratic Party Caucus met the other day to strategize about health care policy.

Example

GOP health-care bill: House Republican leaders abruptly pull their rewrite of the nation’s health-care law

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AP US Government and Politics

Questions

  1. What do party caucuses do?

  2. How does a caucus pick its leadership?

  3. If cacti is the plural of cactus, what is the plural of caucus?

  4. If you are in a party caucus does that make you a caucasian?

  5. If the Congress outlawed caucuses (cauci?!) how would that change the lawmaking process?

Exclusionary Rule

AP US Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What do you think exclusionary rule means?

  2. Use exclusionary rule in a sentence without using a single curse word.

  3. Think of an example of exclusionary rule in current events:

  4. Find an image of exclusionary rule:

Fun Fact

Definition

Exclusionary Rule: The exclusionary rule prevents the government from using most evidence gathered in violation of the United States Constitution.  The exclusionary rule applies to evidence gained from an unreasonable search or seizure in violation of the Fourth Amendment, as ruled in Mapp v. Ohio (1961), and to improperly elicited self-incriminatory statements gathered in violation of the Fifth Amendment, as ruled in Miranda v. Arizona (1966). Here's the Oyez page on Mapp v. Ohio.

Sentence

If a police officer searched your house, found a kilo of cocaine underneath your pet Gila monster, but did not have a warrant to search your house, because of the exclusionary rule, this illegally obtained evidence could not be used against you in a court preceding.

Example

Federal Court Tells ATF It Can't Just Help Itself To Cell Phone Data Seized By Another Law Enforcement Agency

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AP US Government and Politics

AP US Government and Politics

Questions

  1. When was the Exclusionary Rule established?

  2. What are some exceptions to the Exclusionary Rule?

  3. Do you think the US would be better off without the Exclusionary Rule?

Executive Office of the President

Prediction

  1. What do you think Executive Office of the President means?

  2. Use Office of Executive Office of the President in a life-changing, mind-blowing sentence.

  3. Find an example of Executive Office of the President in current events:

  4. Find an image of Executive Office of the President:

Fun Fact

Definition

The Executive Office of the President (EOP): The cluster of presidential staff agencies that help the president carry out his responsibilities. Currently the office includes the Office of Management and Budget, the Council of Economic Advisers, and several other units. To provide the President with the support that he or she needs to govern effectively, the Executive Office of the President (EOP) was created in 1939 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Overseen by the White House Chief of Staff, the EOP has traditionally been home to many of the President’s closest advisors.

Sentence

Every day, the President of the United States is faced with scores of decisions, each with important consequences for America’s future. To provide the President with the support that he or she needs to govern effectively, the Executive Office of the President (EOP) was created in 1939 by President Franklin D. Roosevelt. The EOP has responsibility for tasks ranging from communicating the President’s message to the American people to promoting our trade interests abroad.

Example

Experts Say White House's Conway Response Raises Major Ethical Questions

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Questions

  1. What is the primary job of the Executive Office of the President (EOP)?

  2. Who appoints the members of the EOP?

  3. Does the Congress have to confirm all of these picks?

White Primary

AP US Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What do you think white primary means?

  2. Use white primary in a sentence.

  3. Think of an example of white primary in current events:

  4. Find an image of white primary:

Sad Fact

Definition

White primary: A Democratic party primary in the old "one-party South" that was limited to white people and essentially constituted an election, ruled unconstitutional in Smith v. Allwright (1944). Here's the PBS website on Jim Crow and white primaries.

Sentence

After Reconstruction, since the vast majority of southern voters were Democrats Republicans could never beat democrats in a general election. Blacks were allowed to vote in general elections, which didn't actually decide anything, but not in the primary, the only vote that actually mattered.

Example

Voting Rights Roundup: New study confirms just how racially discriminatory voter ID laws truly are

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AP US Government and Politics

Questions

  1. How did White Primaries guarantee White electoral victories?

  2. Why were Republican candidates unable to win in the "solid-South" during the Jim Crow era?

  3. Today, white primaries are illegal, are there any other methods that current politicians legally use to disenfranchise minority voters?

Judicial Review

Prediction

  1. What do you think Judicial Review means?

  2. Use Judicial Review in a sentence:

  3. Describe an example of Judicial Review in current events:

  4. Find an image of judicial review:

Fun Fact

Definition

The power of a court to refuse to enforce a law or a government regulation that in the opinion of the judges conflicts with the U.S. Constitution, or in a state court, the state constitution. Here is the entire court opinion in the case of Marbury v Madison which established the principal of judicial review in the U.S.

Sentence

Without judicial review the U.S. Congress and President would be greatly empowered and the Supreme Court would be vastly diminished.

Example

Federal Circuit Panel Urges Court to Revisit Reviewability of § 315(b) En Banc

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Questions

  1. When was judicial review first established in the U.S.?

  2. What would U.S. checks and balances be like without judicial review?

  3. What would happen to presidential power without judicial review?

  4. If the Rockettes put on black robes and performed a show would it be called Judicial Review?

  5. Does your family have it's own kind of judicial review for family matters?

Gross domestic product (GDP)

AP US Government and Politics

Prediction

  1. What do you think gross domestic product (GDP) means?

  2. Use GDP in a sentence.

  3. Think of an example of GDP in current events:

  4. Find an image of GDP:

 
 

Definition

Gross Domestic Product (GDP): one of the primary indicators used to gauge the health of a country's economy. It represents the total dollar value of all goods and services produced over a specific time period; you can think of it as the size of the economy. If your teacher is over 33 years old, under 54, and slightly hip, ask them this, "You down with GDP?" And about they will say, "Yeah, you know me!" Here's a great video from Planet Money about how to calculate GDP.

Sentence

The current US GDP is approximately $18.9 trillion, which is equal to 18,900,000,000,000. That's 18.9 thousand billion dollars. That's a lot!

Example

A Day Without a Woman Could Cost the Country Nearly $21 Billion in GDP

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Question

  1. What does GDP measure?

  2. Why does the US have the world's biggest GDP?

  3. The US has the world's biggest GDP, when you divide our GDP by the number of people in America, how well do you think the US ranks?

  4. What parts of the US government are most responsible for growing GDP?

Cross-cutting cleavages

Prediction

  1. What do you think cross-cutting cleavages (CCC) means?

  2. Use cross-cutting cleavages in a sentence.

  3. Think of an example of cross-cutting cleavages in current events:

  4. Find an image of cross-cutting cleavages: On second thought, don't find an image of cross-cutting cleavages. Too risky.

Fun Fact

Definition

Cross-cutting cleavages: Political cleavages are national, ethnic, linguistic, and religious divisions that affect political allegiances and policies. Cleavages can be reinforcing (cumulative) or cross-cutting. For example, if a nation was divided by cross-cutting cleavages then some people of a certain ethnic group might be rich while other people of the same ethnic group might be poor. In a nation divided by reinforcing cleavages, all people of one ethnic group would be rich and all people of another ethnic group would be poor. Cross-cutting cleavages were originally suggested as a mechanism for political stability, as no group can align all its members along a uniform cleavage-based platform, but rather has to appeal to members of the group that are spread throughout the groups created by other cleavages.

Sentence

In the US, we are divided by cross-cutting cleavages. Most Americans have some point of overlap regarding race, religion, socio-economic status, and gender. In Northern Ireland, there is really just one big reinforcing cleavage; religion. It doesn't matter if you are rich are poor, the big divide in all political matters is based upon whether you are Protestant and Catholic.

Example

Female scholars react to Hillary Clinton's historic nomination

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Questions

  1. What is the main difference between cross-cutting and reinforcing cleavages?

  2. Is the US more divided by cross-cutting or reinforcing cleavages?

  3. is cross-cutting or reinforcing cleavages worse for the stability of a nation?

  4. Did the 2016 election change your opinion about cleavages in the US political system? 

Realigning Election

Prediction

  1. What do you think realigning election means? Pro tip: it's not a clothing store!

  2. Use realigning election in a sentence.

  3. Think of an example of realigning election in current events:

  4. Find an image of realigning election:

 
 

Definition

Realigning Election: An election during periods of expanded suffrage and change in the economy and society that proves to be a turning point, redefining the agenda of politics and the alignment of voters within parties. This can also be known as a key election or critical election. Our party system has been shaped by these elections which have taken place roughly every generation or 32 years. 1824: Andrew Jackson & the Democrats; 1860: Civil War Republicans; 1886: Republican Progressives; 1932: FDR's New Deal. Check out all the U.S. presidential election maps ever.

Sentence

Judging by the patterns of US history, it is most likely that there has been a realigning election since 1932, where new factions and party members coalesced into a majority force in politics.

Example

Trump May Bring A Republican Recalibration, Not A Realignment

 

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Question

  1. What causes a realigning election?

  2. Was 2016 a realigning election?

  3. if realigning elections really take place about every 32 years, when have realigning elections happened since 1932?

Turnout

Prediction

  1. What do you think turnout means? Pro tip: turnout, not turn up!!!!

  2. Use turnout in a sentence.

  3. Think of an example of turnout in current events:

  4. Find an image of turnout:

Fun Fact

Definition

Turnout: Voter turnout is the percentage of eligible voters who cast a ballot in an election. Eligibility varies by country, and the voting-eligible population should not be confused with the total adult population. Here's a list of some things that affect voter turnout.

Sentence

Voter turnout varies between countries, and within countries, from one year to the next. In recent decades, the voter turnout in US presidential elections has averaged about 50% of the voting age population.

Example

Using Tech, Data to Increase Voter Turnout

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Question

  1. What is one reason that the US has a low voter turnout compared to other wealthy countries?

  2. Within the US, what are some groups of people who turn out at a higher rate than others?

  3. What is the main difference between turnout, turn up, and turnt?

  4. Explain turn up to your teacher?

  5. What would be one way to increase voter turnout in the US?

Gender Gap

Prediction

  1. What do you think gender gap means? Pro tip: it's not a clothing store!

  2. Use gender gap in a sentence (that makes sense and explains the term. For example, "Gender gap is a word." is not a good sentence).

  3. Think of an example of gender gap in current events:

  4. Find an image of gender gap:

Fun Fact

Definition

Gender gap: the differences between women and men, especially as reflected in social, political, intellectual, cultural, or economic attainments or attitudes. The regular patterns by which women are more likely to hold more liberal views and support Democratic candidates. Gender Gap: Party Identification and Presidential Performance Ratings.

Sentence

The gender gap helps explain why females overwhelmingly voted for Democratic Senate candidates nationwide. 

Example

The unexpected voters behind the widest gender gap in recorded election history

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Question

  1. How big was the gender gap in the 2016 presidential election?

  2. Why is there a gender gap in the US?

  3. And why is the gender gap widening?

  4. What is one effect of the gender gap?

  5. Can you think of a current politician who could erase or at least limit the gender gap?

Coattail Effect

Prediction

  1. What do you think coattail effect means?

  2. Use coattail effect in a sentence.

  3. Think of an example of coattail effect in current events:

  4. Find an image of coattail effect:

Fun Fact

Definition

Coattail effect: The boost that candidates may get in an election because of the popularity of candidates above them on the ballot, especially the president. The coattail effect, or down-ballot effect is the tendency for a popular political party leader to attract votes for other candidates of the same party in an election.

Sentence

Hugh Jass wasn't the world's greatest candidate, but when Libertarian presidential candidate Pepperpot won the popular vote by 19 percentage points, all kinds of unpopular Libertarians road his coattails and were elected to Congress.

Example

A Closer Look at Trump's 'Coattails Effect'

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Questions

  1. Do most winning presidents have much of a coattail effect for their party?

  2. Why do you think the coattail effect exists?

  3. Did Donald Trump have a big coattail effect in the 2016 election?

Amicus Curiae Brief

Prediction

  1. What do you think amicus curiae brief means? Pro-tip, it's not a kind of underwear.

  2. Use amicus curiae brief in a sentence.

  3. Think of an example of amicus curiae brief in current events:

  4. Find an image of amicus curiae brief:

 
 

Definition

Amicus Curiae Brief Literally, a "friend of the court" brief, filed by an individual or organization to present arguments in addition to those presented by the immediate parties to a case.  Frequently, a person or group who is not a party to a lawsuit, but has a strong interest in the matter, will petition the court for permission to submit a brief in the action with the intent of influencing the court's decision.

Sentence

Although it was not directly involved in the case, Exxon filed an amicus brief on behalf of the state of Michigan in support of affirmative action.

Example

Yahoo Joins List of Tech Firms Challenging Travel Ban

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How the heck do you say it???

 

Question(s)

  1. Now that you know how to say it, what does amicus curiae mean?

  2. Why would someone file an amicus curiae brief?

  3. How much do you think amicus briefs, or friend of the court briefs actually affect judgement in a case?

Regulation

Prediction

  1. What do you think regulation means?

  2. Use regulation in a sentence.

  3. Think of an example of regulation in current events:

  4. Find an image of regulation:

 

Fun Fact

Definition

Regulation: A policy that encourages or discourages certain behavior by imposing a legally-binding rule. Rules are made through a long process that begins with an act of Congress and ends with issuance of a final rule.

Sentence

The United States discourages certain behaviors like smoking, using illegal drugs, polluting, and listening to Nelly by the use of regulations.

Example

Why We Should Say 'Protections' and Not 'Regulations'

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Question(s)

  1. What government entities create regulations?

  2. What is one thing the US government has regulated in our country's history?

  3. Do you think that regulations generally help or hurt countries?

  4. What is one government regulation that you think isbeneficial?

  5. President Trump has vowed to get rid of 75% of US government protections, or regulations. Do you think that would be a good idea?