FRQ Review

AP Free response questions and themes from 2001-2016


Methods of amending Constitution
Reasons for congressional incumbent reelections
14th amendment connection to Court cases
Difficulty of enacting public policy


Divided Government and its difficulties
Reasons for distribution of government benefits
Racial minorities and political influence
Voter turnout decline/Midterm elections


Presidential approval ratings
Political participation (other than voting)
Federal & state employees-block grants/mandates
Party leaders and committees in Congress


Impact of money on presidential elections
Difficulties in amending the Constitution
Increasing power of presidency
Effect of incumbents/interest groups/media


Insulation of Supreme Court from public opinion
Means of increasing power of federal government
Selective incorporation & growing civil liberties/rights
Methods of federal campaign finance reform


Goals of Interest Groups and Parties
Social Security and Entitlements
Congress and Bureaucratic Agencies


Electoral College/Winner Take All
Freedom of Religion - clauses
War Powers Resolution
Federalism/Increase of Federal Power


Congressional Redistricting
President and Congress and domestic policy
Fiscal Policy and Monetary Policy
Civil Rights and minority voting


Majority rule and minority protections
Voting and demographics
Majority versus minority in Congress
President/Media and Agenda Setting


Interest Groups and Rights
Merit system and Checks on Bureaucracy
Political party demographics and the South
Federalism and the Bill of Rights


Political Parties and Nominations
Supreme Court and its rulings
Public Opinion polls and Congressional Voting
Congress versus Executive in making Public Policy


Congressional Duties: lawmaking, oversight, constituent service
Minority Representation in Congress
Insulation of Judiciary from Politics
Interest Groups and policy


Models of congressional representation
Political parties and congressional elections
Judicial nominations and demographics
Public Policy and Political Institutions


Federalists v Anti-Federalists and power of national government
Voting laws, demographics, and voter turnout
Presidential and Congressional powers in foreign policy
Causes and effects of party polarization


Policy Constraints on President
Federalism past and present
Electoral College and campaign strategies
14th Amendment and Civil Liberties & Civil Rights


Role of Linkage Institutions in Elections
Population Changes and consequences for political institutions
Bureaucracy and Congress making policy

Changes in citizen participation in government over time