FRQ Review

AP Free response questions and themes from 2001-2016


Methods of amending Constitution

Reasons for congressional incumbent reelections

14th amendment connection to Court cases

Difficulty of enacting public policy



Divided Government and its difficulties

Reasons for distribution of government benefits

Racial minorities and political influence

Voter turnout decline/Midterm elections



Presidential approval ratings

Political participation (other than voting)

Federal & state employees-block grants/mandates

Party leaders and committees in Congress



Impact of money on presidential elections

Difficulties in amending the Constitution

Increasing power of presidency

Effect of incumbents/interest groups/media



Insulation of Supreme Court from public opinion

Means of increasing power of federal government

Selective incorporation & growing civil liberties/rights

Methods of federal campaign finance reform



Goals of Interest Groups and Parties

Social Security and Entitlements

Congress and Bureaucratic Agencies




Electoral College/Winner Take All

Freedom of Religion - clauses

War Powers Resolution

Federalism/Increase of Federal Power



Congressional Redistricting

President and Congress and domestic policy

Fiscal Policy and Monetary Policy

Civil Rights and minority voting



Majority rule and minority protections

Voting and demographics

Majority versus minority in Congress

President/Media and Agenda Setting


Interest Groups and Rights

Merit system and Checks on Bureaucracy

Political party demographics and the South

Federalism and the Bill of Rights


Political Parties and Nominations

Supreme Court and its rulings

Public Opinion polls and Congressional Voting

Congress versus Executive in making Public Policy


Congressional Duties: lawmaking, oversight, constituent service

Minority Representation in Congress

Insulation of Judiciary from Politics

Interest Groups and policy


Models of congressional representation

Political parties and congressional elections

Judicial nominations and demographics

Public Policy and Political Institutions


Federalists v Anti-Federalists and power of national government

Voting laws, demographics, and voter turnout

Presidential and Congressional powers in foreign policy

Causes and effects of party polarization


Policy Constraints on President

Federalism past and present

Electoral College and campaign strategies

14th Amendment and Civil Liberties & Civil Rights


Role of Linkage Institutions in Elections

Population Changes and consequences for political institutions

Bureaucracy and Congress making policy

Changes in citizen participation in government over time



Checks and balances on Supreme Court

Role of Interest Groups in Political Process

Consequences of growth of entitlement spending

Federalism and balance of power between states and federal government

Prediction: What will the topics of the 2018 FRQ questions be?