AP Free response questions and themes

YearSpecific QuestionsGeneral Themes

2001Methods of amending Constitution
Reasons for congressional incumbent reelections
14th amendment connection to Court cases
Difficulty of enacting public policyConstitution/federalism
Congress elections
Court cases/Const.
Policy/interest groups

2002Divided Government and its difficulties
Reasons for distribution of government benefits
Racial minorities and political influence
Voter turnout decline/Midterm electionsParties
Policy/voting
Electoral system
Presidential elections

2003Presidential approval ratings
Political participation (other than voting)
Federal & state employees-block grants/mandates
Party leaders and committees in congressPresidency
Political participation
Bureaucracy/federalism
Congress

2004Impact of money on presidential elections
Difficulties in amending the Constitution
Increasing power of presidency
Effect of incumbents/interest groups/media: policyPresidential elections
Constitution/federalism
Presidency
Policy

2005Insulation of Supreme Court from public opinion
Means of increasing power of federal government
Selective incorporation & growing civil liberties/rights
Methods of federal campaign finance reformSupreme Court
Federalism
Civil liberties
Elections

2006Goals of Interest Groups and Parties
Social Security and Entitlements
Congress and Bureaucratic Agencies
BicameralismInterest Groups/Parties
Policy/demographics
Congress/Bureaucracy
Congress

2007Electoral College/Winner Take All
Freedom of Religion - clauses
War Powers Resolution
Federalism/Increase of Federal PowerElections
First Amendment
Congress/President
Federalism

2008Congressional Redistricting
President and Congress and domestic policy
Fiscal Policy and Monetary Policy
Civil Rights and minority votingCongress Elections
President
Policy
Civil Rights/voting

2009Majority rule and minority protections
Voting and demographics
Majority versus minority in Congress
President/Media and Agenda SettingConstitution and Voting
Voting and elections Congress
President and Media


2010Interest Groups and Rights
Merit system and Checks on Bureaucracy
Political party demographics and the South
Federalism and the Bill of RightsInterest Groups
Bureaucracy
Political Parties
Federalism


2011Political Parties and Nominations
Supreme Court and its rulings
Public Opinion polls and Congressional Voting
Congress versus Executive in making Public PolicyParties
Supreme Court
Public Opinion
Congress v Executive


2012Congressional Duties: lawmaking, oversight, constituent service
Minority Representation in Congress
Insulation of Judiciary from Politics
Interest Groups and policyCongress
Congressional elections
Judiciary
Interest Groups


2013 Models of congressional representation
Political parties and congressional elections
Judicial nominations and demographics
Public Policy and Political InstitutionsCongress & Elections
Parties and Elections
Judiciary
Policy


2014Federalists v Anti-Federalists and power of national government
Voting laws, demographics, and voter turnout
Presidential and Congressional powers in foreign policy
Causes and effects of party polarizationFederalism and Constitution
Voting
Congress v President
Political Parties


2015Policy Constraints on President
Federalism past and present
Electoral College and campaign strategies
14th Amendment and Civil Liberties & Civil RightsPresidency and Policy
Federalism
Elections
Civil Liberties and Civil Rights